《中英對照讀新聞》Can You Learn Anything While You Sleep? 睡著時能學東西嗎?


2019-04-22 06:00

◎劉宜庭

Is sleep learning possible? The answer is yes and no, depending on what we mean by "learning."

睡眠學習法可行嗎?答案可以是肯定的,也可以是否定的,取決於你怎麼定義「學習」。

Absorbing complex information or picking up a new skill from scratch by, say, listening to an audio recording during sleep is almost certainly impossible. But research shows that the sleeping brain is far from idle and that some forms of learning can happen.

睡覺時透過聽錄音來吸收複雜的資訊或從頭開展一項新技能,幾乎確定不可能成功。但研究顯示,睡眠期間的大腦並未空轉,可以產生某些形式的學習。

The first study to demonstrate a memory and learning benefit from sleep was published in 1914 by German psychologist Rosa Heine. She found that learning new material in the evening before sleep results in better recall compared to learning during the day.

德國心理學家羅莎.海涅在1914年發表第一項證明睡眠有益記憶和學習的研究。她發現,相較於在白天學習,在晚上睡前學新東西能記得更好。

In recent years, multiple studies have found that a basic form of learning, called conditioning, can happen during sleep. In a 2012 study published in the journal Nature Neuroscience, Israeli researchers found that people can learn to associate sounds with odors during sleep.

近幾年,已有多項研究發現,睡眠期間能發生被稱為「制約作用」的基本學習形式。以色列研究團隊2012年發表在《自然神經科學雜誌》期刊的研究發現,人們可以在睡覺時學會將聲音與氣味相連結。

Although the memory was implicit, it could affect the people’s behavior, researchers found in a 2014 study published in the Journal of Neuroscience.

研究人員2014年發表於《神經科學期刊》的研究指出,雖然這類記憶是隱性的,但也能影響人們的行為。

新聞辭典

sleeping:名詞,睡眠;形容詞,睡著的。例句:There are only 24 hours in a day, and usually about a third of that is spent sleeping.(一天只有24小時,通常3分之1是用在睡眠。)

learning:名詞,學習。例句:Sleep learning could be useful when people need to change a habit or alter stubborn disturbing memories.(當人們需要改變習慣或克服難以駕馭的煩擾記憶時,睡眠學習法能有所助益。)

memory:名詞,記憶。例句:Sleep benefits the retention of memory.(睡覺有助於鞏固記憶。)

  • 近年研究發現,睡眠期間可發生被稱為「制約作用」的基本學習形式。圖為澳洲網球公開賽場邊睡著的觀眾。(美聯社檔案照)

    近年研究發現,睡眠期間可發生被稱為「制約作用」的基本學習形式。圖為澳洲網球公開賽場邊睡著的觀眾。(美聯社檔案照)